True and False Questions
Some scientists before Darwin, such as Lamarck, believed that one species could give rise to another.
Lamarck believed that giraffes came to have long necks through stretching their necks.
The naturalist Wallace, like Darwin, also developed the concept of evolution by natural selection.
Darwin took Mendels work on heredity into account in his work on natural selection.
In industrial areas of England, as industrial pollution increased, the frequency of black morphs of the peppered moth decreased.
Scientists believe that birds evolved from flying mammals (e.g. bats).
Multiple Choice Questions - Choose the best available answer.
Whales have no hind legs, yet they have several tiny leg bones embedded in their body without any apparent function. What is the appropriate term for such a structure?
a) anatomical relics
b) homologous structures
c) analogous structures
d) pleitropic structures
e) vestigial structures
The botanist who devised a system for classifying all living organisms was
Which of the following statements is consistent with Darwins idea of natural selection?
a) Larger individuals tend to have more offspring.
b) Individuals better adapted to the environment tend to leave more offspring.
c) Individuals with variation tend to survive longer.
d) Survival of individuals is more important in natural selection than in reproduction.
e) Organisms placed into a cold environment will have an increased rate of mutation in cold adapted alleles.
The genetic differences between individuals in populations result
a) only from mutations giving rise to different alleles for genetic loci
b) from the action of natural selection
c) from mutations producing novel alleles and from recombination producing new combinations of traits
d) only from recombination shuffling existing alleles during sexual reproduction
e) from repeated use of a structure increasing the rate of mutation
When frequency-dependent selection maintains a polymorphism, a genotype has a selective advantage
a) in a patchy environment
b) when it is rare
c) when it is heterozygous
d) when it is in high frequency
In Kettlewells mark-recapture experiment with peppered moths, the agent of selection that has been shown to alter the frequency of peppered moth morphs is
a) soot from factories
b) lichens growing on trees
c) birds that eat moths
d) lepidopterists that collect moths
In measuring the effects of selection, an individual with higher fitness
a) survives longer than those with lower fitness
b) has greater reproductive success than those with lower fitness
c) is more vigorous and healthy than less fit individuals
d) has a higher selection coefficient than a less fit individual
Suppose we draw a phylogenetic tree based upon DNA structure. Which of the following pairs of organisms do you think would be placed most closely together?
a) humans (homo sapiens) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodites)
b) dog and a robin
c) tuna fish and starfish
d) whale and tuna fish
e) Geospiza conirostris and Geospiza scandens
Which is the most accurate statement about evolutions fossil evidence?
a) There is a complete record of fossils for the ancestors of most plants and animals.
b) Paleontologists believe that most extinct forms of life formed fossils.
c) We have complete fossil records for bones, shells, wood, as well as for soft-bodied organisms.
d) There are few fairly complete fossil lineages, such as that for the ancestors of Equus.
Homologous structures in different species
a) have common embryonic origin
b) appear similar but form differently in the embryo
c) are presumed to have different evolutionary origins
d) are considered to be analogous
e) always function in similar ways
In DNA fingerprinting, what is the name of the technique where radioactive chemicals are detected on X-ray film?
a) gel electrophoresis
b) paper electrophoresis
e) restriction enzyme analysis
Which base pairs usually occur in DNA?
a) adenine - guanine
b) cytosine - thymine
c) adenine - uracil
d) cytosine - adenine
e) none of the above